East Java's hazy past comes into focus with its political and cultural ascendancy in the 10th century AD, and the reign of Airlangga. Before claiming the throne in 1019 AD, Airlangga had spent many years as hermit, devoting time to accumulating wisdom through fasting and meditation. Under Airlangga's government, eastern Java became united and powerful but shortly before his death he devided his kingdom between his two sons, creating Jenggala, east of Brantas River and Kediri to the west. A third kingdom, Singosari, join in the struggle for the ascendancy.
East Java achieved its gloriousness when the Majapahit Empire was governed by Hayam Wuruk with his assistant Patih Gajah Mada on 1294-1478 and during the reign of Hayam Wuruk carried their power overseas, with raids into Bali and an expedition against Palembang in Sumatra. Majapahit also claimed trading relations with Cambodia, Burma, Siam, Vietnam and sent mission to China. When Hayam Wuruk died in 1389, the Majapahit Empire rapidly disintegrated. By the end of 15th centur, Islamic power was growing on the north coast and less than a century most of East Java are muslim. Just because of didnt want to be in muslim environtment many Hindu-Buddist were moving to Bali, but in the mountain ranges around Gunung Bromo, the Tenggerese people traced their history back to Majapahit and still practise their own religion. A variety of Hinduism that includes many proto-javanese elements. During the 17th century the region finally fell to the rulers of Mataram in Central Java.
Today, Surabaya, the provincial capital and second-largest city in Indonesia. It is a vital centre for trade and manfacturing, but East Java is still a region of agriculture and small vilages. In marked contrast t the practically always - wet western end of Java. East Java has monsoonal climate and real dry season from April to November.